Python: requests

Installation

$ pip install requests

Examples

>>> import requests

>>> resp = requests.get('https://api.github.com')
>>> resp
<Response [200]>

>>> dir(resp)
['__attrs__', '__bool__', '__class__', '__delattr__', '__dict__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__enter__', '__eq__', '__exit__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__getstate__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__init_subclass__', '__iter__', '__le__', '__lt__', '__module__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__nonzero__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__setattr__', '__setstate__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', '__weakref__', '_content', '_content_consumed', '_next', 'apparent_encoding', 'close', 'connection', 'content', 'cookies', 'elapsed', 'encoding', 'headers', 'history', 'is_permanent_redirect', 'is_redirect', 'iter_content', 'iter_lines', 'json', 'links', 'next', 'ok', 'raise_for_status', 'raw', 'reason', 'request', 'status_code', 'text', 'url']

>>> resp.elapsed
datetime.timedelta(0, 0, 279112)

>>> resp.elapsed.microseconds
279112

>>> resp.status_code
200

# True if status_code < 400
>>> resp.ok
True

>>> resp.reason
'OK'

>>> resp.is_redirect
False

>>> resp.is_permanent_redirect
False

>>> resp.headers
{'server': 'GitHub.com', 'date': 'Wed, 09 Dec 2020 05:07:46 GMT', 'status': '304 Not Modified', 
...
'Content-Length': '512', 'X-GitHub-Request-Id': '8E29:7205:24BDB3C:4FCE87E:5FD05BA4'}

>>> resp.headers['content-type']
'application/json; charset=utf-8'

>>> resp.cookies
<RequestsCookieJar[]>

# response content in bytes
>>> type(resp.content)
<class 'bytes'>

>>> type(resp.text)
<class 'str'>

>>> resp.raw
<urllib3.response.HTTPResponse object at 0x7fa59fb0a9e8>

#  ValueError: If the response body does not contain valid json.
>>> resp.json()
{'current_user_url': 'https://api.github.com/user',
...
'repository_url': 'https://api.github.com/repos/{owner}/{repo}', 
...}
>>> import requests

>>> dir(requests)
['ConnectTimeout', 'ConnectionError', 'DependencyWarning', 'FileModeWarning', 'HTTPError', 'NullHandler', 'PreparedRequest', 'ReadTimeout', 'Request', 'RequestException', 'RequestsDependencyWarning', 'Response', 'Session', 'Timeout', 'TooManyRedirects', 'URLRequired', '__author__', '__author_email__', '__build__', '__builtins__', '__cached__', '__cake__', '__copyright__', '__description__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__license__', '__loader__', '__name__', '__package__', '__path__', '__spec__', '__title__', '__url__', '__version__', '_check_cryptography', '_internal_utils', 'adapters', 'api', 'auth', 'certs', 'chardet', 'check_compatibility', 'codes', 'compat', 'cookies', 'delete', 'exceptions', 'get', 'head', 'hooks', 'logging', 'models', 'options', 'packages', 'patch', 'post', 'put', 'request', 'session', 'sessions', 'ssl', 'status_codes', 'structures', 'urllib3', 'utils', 'warnings']

>>> help(requests)

Help on package requests:

NAME
    requests

DESCRIPTION
    Requests HTTP Library
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    Requests is an HTTP library, written in Python, for human beings.
    Basic GET usage:

       >>> import requests
       >>> r = requests.get('https://www.python.org')
       >>> r.status_code
       200
       >>> b'Python is a programming language' in r.content
       True

    ... or POST:

       >>> payload = dict(key1='value1', key2='value2')
       >>> r = requests.post('https://httpbin.org/post', data=payload)
       >>> print(r.text)
       {
         ...
         "form": {
           "key1": "value1",
           "key2": "value2"
         },
         ...
       }

    The other HTTP methods are supported - see `requests.api`. Full documentation
    is at <https://requests.readthedocs.io>.

    :copyright: (c) 2017 by Kenneth Reitz.
    :license: Apache 2.0, see LICENSE for more details.
Help on function request in module requests.api:

request(method, url, **kwargs)
    Constructs and sends a :class:`Request <Request>`.

    :param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object: ``GET``, ``OPTIONS``, ``HEAD``, ``POST``, ``PUT``, ``PATCH``, or ``DELETE``.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param params: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples or bytes to send
        in the query string for the :class:`Request`.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
        object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) A JSON serializable Python object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param files: (optional) Dictionary of ``'name': file-like-objects`` (or ``{'name': file-tuple}``) for multipart encoding upload.
        ``file-tuple`` can be a 2-tuple ``('filename', fileobj)``, 3-tuple ``('filename', fileobj, 'content_type')``
        or a 4-tuple ``('filename', fileobj, 'content_type', custom_headers)``, where ``'content-type'`` is a string
        defining the content type of the given file and ``custom_headers`` a dict-like object containing additional headers
        to add for the file.
    :param auth: (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
    :param timeout: (optional) How many seconds to wait for the server to send data
        before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout, read
        timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
    :type timeout: float or tuple
    :param allow_redirects: (optional) Boolean. Enable/disable GET/OPTIONS/POST/PUT/PATCH/DELETE/HEAD redirection. Defaults to ``True``.
    :type allow_redirects: bool
    :param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
    :param verify: (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
            the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path
            to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to ``True``.
    :param stream: (optional) if ``False``, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
    :param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response

    Usage::

      >>> import requests
      >>> res = requests.request('GET', 'https://httpbin.org/get')
      >>> res
      <Response [200]>
>>> help(requests.get)

Help on function get in module requests.api:

get(url, params=None, **kwargs)
    Sends a GET request.

    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param params: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples or bytes to send
        in the query string for the :class:`Request`.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
>>> help(requests.post)

Help on function post in module requests.api:

post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)
    Sends a POST request.

    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
        object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) json data to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
>>> help(requests.put)

Help on function put in module requests.api:

put(url, data=None, **kwargs)
    Sends a PUT request.

    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
        object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) json data to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
>>> help(requests.delete)

Help on function delete in module requests.api:

delete(url, **kwargs)
    Sends a DELETE request.

    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
>> help(requests.Response)

Also See

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